Sam is an online writer with over eight years experience. Sam's articles often focus on motorcycle and automobile repair. The term "chassis" is used to designate the complete car minus the body.
Understanding the Automotive Chassis System
The chassis therefore consists of the engine, power-transmission system, and suspension system all suitably attached to, or suspended from, a structurally independent frame. Although this construction is widely used, an almost equal number of automobile makers employ a design in which the frame and body are welded together to form an integral unit. Usually of all-welded steel construction, the frame may consist of either 1 box-girder side rails with reinforced center X; 2 full-length box-girder side rails with box-girder cross members ladder type ; or 3 center X construction with no side rails, braced front and rear with box-girder cross members.
The chief design requirements of the automobile frame, whether it be structurally independent or an integral part of the body, are that it provide great strength with minimum weight.
It must be rigid enough tc absorb the road impacts and shocks transmitted by wheels and axles, and it must be able to withstand the torsional stresses encountered under operating conditions.
To save weight, side members are made deepest at the location of greatest bending moment, tapering off as the bending moment decreases. The frame is made narrower at the front to allow the front wheels to turn when steering; it also features a "kickup" at the rear to lower the center of gravity of the car and still allow sufficient room for effective rear-spring action. The front wheels of most passenger cars are independently suspended from the frame.
Independent suspension reduces the front-end vibration associated with the rigid front axle that formerly was used, and it also improves vehicle riding and handling qualities. The movement of each front wheel is, within the limitations discussed below, completely unaffected by the movements of the other.
The most common independent suspension system mounts a steering-knuckle-and-wheel-spindle assembly between upper and lower pairs of nearly parallel control arms. The inner ends of the control arms pivot in rubber-mounted steel bushings secured to the frame; the outer ends terminate in ball joints that support the steering knuckle and wheel spindle. Because the lower arms are longer than the upper, the relation of their up-and-down movements is such that, in turning maneuvers, the outside and more heavily loaded wheel remains more nearly vertical with respect to the road surface.
Front suspensions may incorporate either torsion bars or coil springs. Torsion bars, one on each side, run parallel to the front-to-back center line of the vehicle. A torsion bar is a steel member, usually cylindrical, that absorbs front-wheel deflections by twisting about its own horizontal axis. One end of the torsion bar is fastened rigidly to the frame at some point toward the rear of the car; the other end is linked to the suspension system so that the shaft alternately twists and untwists in response to the vertical movements of the front wheel.
When coil springs are used, they are mounted under compression between the frame and the upper or lower control arms. In addition, a stabilizer bar often is linked to the lower control arms to balance tire loading and to prevent excessive sway when the car is cornering. Whenever one spring deflects more than the other, the stabilizer equalizes the deflection by transferring part of the load to the other tire.
Although a few American cars feature independent, or swing-axle, rear-wheel suspension, the majority use a fixed rear axle suspended from either laminated layered leaf springs or a coil-springs-trailing control-arm arrangement.
Whichever suspension system is used, it must be designed not only to absorb road shocks but also to provide a means for absorbing the torque reactions resulting from driving and braking. When laminated leaf springs are used, one end of each spring is fastened to the frame of the car by a pivot joint. The other end is connected to the frame by a shackle, or swinging joint, that compensates for the changes in over-all length that occur when the spring flexes.
Connection bushings are steel sleeves mounted in oil-resistant rubber. Leaf springs usually are clamped to the rear-axle housing with U-bolts at a point approximately midway between the ends of the spring. In a coil-spring rear-suspension system the springs are mounted under compression between the frame and the axle housing. Because of the nature of coil springs, transverse crosswise radius rods are used to restrict sidewise movement of the axle housing relative to the frame.
To absorb torque reactions, special torque bars are installed between the axle housing and some reinforced point on the frame just ahead of the axle housing. The shock absorber is a hydraulic damping device that controls the oscillations of the springs and prevents their being excessively compressed or expanded. Most commonly used is the direct-acting type, involving a double-acting piston-and-cylinder arrangement.
Rear shock absorbers are installed between the axle housing and the frame; front shock absorbers usually are mounted inside the coil springs between the lower control arm and the frame.
Ford B series
Optional-equipment rear shock absorbers are available that provide adjustable load-carrying capacity, an especially useful feature for station-wagon owners. In one design the upper portion of a hydraulic shock absorber is surrounded by a metal-encased rubber boot that can be inflated with air from a connection inside the vehicle.A premium membership for higher-level suppliers.
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This series of buses with well-designed inner trimmings make you comfortable all the way. The various ergonomic designs and the optional devices can meet your different demands and offer you comprehensive service with a higher seating ratio.Some are shorter than others, some have flat fronts, and others look questionably like a van masquerading as a bus.
The only thing they all seemingly share is the classic yellow that we all know and love, and even then the paint jobs can vary a bit. For example, white roofs are becoming more popular for school buses used in warmer districts. While there are quite a few different types and styles of buses, all school vehicles have to be manufactured to federal motor vehicle safety standards for school buses.
That means they all fit within 7 different classifications. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. The Type B school bus consists of a bus body constructed and installed upon a front-section vehicle chassis, or stripped chassis, with a GVWR of more than 10, pounds, designed for carrying more than 10 persons. The entrance door is then placed behind the front wheels. While more rare in the modern day, still live up to all Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and are designed for specific school district needs.
All of the engine is in front of the windshield and the entrance door is behind the front wheels. The entrance door is ahead of the front wheels. These buses are specifically prohibited from use for school children in regular route bus transportation service.Oppo rmx1805 isp pinout
These buses are exempt from all the traffic control requirements and devices including stop arm and flashing lights, but they are required to comply with all school bus crash-worthiness standards, all other requirements in the school bus crash avoidance and conspicuity safety standards, and all post-crash school bus standards.
School vans are traditional vans converted to full school bus specifications. Major alterations are made to the vehicle, including cutting the roof off to increase the height and welding in a full roll cage, among others. Once complete, the bus drives like a regular van but meets the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards for school buses. These vehicles meet all federal school bus crash-worthiness standards, but do not meet conspicuity regulations or traffic control standards such as flashing lights of school bus yellow paint.
These vehicles are most common for use in Head Start transportation. These are vehicles which do not match or conform to the applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards for school buses. These are typically cargo vehicles converted into passenger vans with passenger sitting. These notably lack the significant safety features of even traditional passenger vehicles.
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Browse our full inventory of school buses, shuttle buses, coaches and more! Have a Question? Yes No. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. While every effort has been made to ensure display of accurate data, the vehicle listings within this web site may not reflect all accurate vehicle items.Enduring performance and passenger and driver safety are our engineering priorities.
Scania bus chassis are fully adaptable for varied capacity, accessibility and road conditions. Our dashboard design puts the driver first and offers a flawless operating experience.
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Front-Engine Bus Chassis
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There is some historical information for showing development in vehicle production. Many of vehicles properties are strictly connected with the chassis or frame. Dynamic properties and static or geometric parameters of the vehicle depends on chassis or frames. It was described an interesting method IPPD adopt to automotive industry.
Also some examples of SSS for design concept in vehicle production have been depicted. Some short information about chassis and frames types used in special vehicles can be helpful for young engineers or technical students. These issues are very important for vehicle designers and engineers and has to be take into focused consideration in all productions processes, especially during assumptions and constructions of chassis or frames.
Automotive industry is one of the biggest and most innovative in total industry area. Almost all manufactured cars and vehicle are made by mass production but in the very beginning the cars were produced by the same technologies of hand craftsmanship that had been used for centuries for the construction of horse-drawn carriages.
Due to the issue of large number of components and assembly rely on joining items the procedure has been changed. It has been started by Henry Ford who developed the techniques of mass production based on preliminary production of rifles during American Civil War. Thus the motor industry from small workshops producing hand-build vehicle changed into huge corporation with mass production techniques with components supply chain.
Second main factor of changing the production processes and techniques was construction development. From the first construction based on horse-drawn carriages with wooden chassis and framework to the modern constructions of steel, lightweight steel or even ULSAB — Ultra Lightweight Steel Auto Body or fiber constructions.
In addition to the direct engineering issues the vehicle designer needs to consider the political issues such as pollution and recycling. Thus the research on materials of engine and vehicle body in terms of environmental and safety are constant conducted.Smash bros sound effect
The novel materials cause changes in construction due to the different physical and mechanical properties . First commercial vehicles lorries and buses were based on steam-powered carriages. The typical example was the steam-engined road vehicle based on railway technology. By the time of First and Second World War the commercial road vehicle industry has developed.
One of the most specific group of commercial vehicles are special heavy vehicles operating often in off-road conditions in different environment and on irregular ground surface. The issues of absorption of vibration, vehicle dynamics and stability in terrain become big factors for developing project and new constructions.
These type of vehicles have large scope of loads, from general cargo to concrete. It can be designed, developed, produced and installed truck bodies and trailers for any kind of use according to special and individual requirements . The very first stage of the vehicle production has to be design.
Design can be considered as an activity to find the best optimal solution to an engineering problem within certain constraints. The whole process involving solution from conception to evaluation, including safety, comfort, aesthetics, ergonomics, manufacture and cost. Designing is an integrated, multi-stage operation, which must be flexible to allow modifications for specific problems and all requirements arise during whole process.A school bus is a motor vehicle, which carries students to and from educational institutions.Indoor volleyball courts near me
A vehicle is usually not considered to be a bus unless it can carry at least 10 passengers. Before the development of motor vehicles, horse-drawn vehicles were used for public transportation. Horse-drawn buses, which could carry 25 to 50 passengers, were used in France as early as Inthe British inventor Sir Goldworthy Gurney designed a bus, which was powered by steam.
Despite the early invention of steam-powered vehicles, horse-drawn vehicles continued to be the most important form of public transportation throughout the nineteenth century. In New York City inmetal rails were first installed to allow horse-drawn vehicles to roll more smoothly over rough city streets.
These rails were later used for steam-powered cable cars, steam locomotives, and electric trains. These vehicles, which were limited to fixed routes because they had to follow the rails, were the dominant form of urban transportation until motor vehicles became popular in the early twentieth century.
Long before this happened, however, public schools began to provide transportation systems for their students. The first act of legislation in the United States providing for pubic funds to transport students to and from schools was enacted in Massachusetts in Usually, local farmers were paid by the state government to carry students in horse-drawn wagons.
Vermont passed a similar law infollowed by Maine and New Hampshire. Byeighteen states had such laws, and by all 48 states had them. Two factors led to the passage of these laws, which led in turn to the increasing use of school buses.
First, compulsory attendance laws required all children to go to school. Second, consolidation laws changed education in rural areas by eliminating small local schools in favor of large central schools, which could provide improved education to more students.
The need to transport all children to school, combined with the fact that rural schools now served a much larger area, made school buses a vital part of public education. During the nineteenth century, the vehicles used to transport students were known as school wagons. The earliest school wagons were simply wooden farm wagons. Later, canvas tarpaulins were used to cover the wagons in order to offer protection from the weather. Stoves were used to heat the wagons in winter.The chassis or frame is a structure which locates and mounts all other parts of the vehicle.
It also provides a protected space for the occupant s. There are multiple types of chassis but all of them can be classified into one of two approaches:. Both approaches can provide a structure capable of mounting other vehicle components, but each has its own advantages and disadvantages.
The Spaceframe chassis uses numerous cut and shaped pieces of structural metal tubing usually steel joined together to form a strong framework. Diagram SF1. The principle of spaceframe design is to use triangulation of the tubes to create a rigid structure.
Diagrams SF2 and SF3 below show how triangulation is used to rigidize a structure:. Diagram SF2.
Bus, Chassis, and Engine Specifications 2017
An untriangulated box One missing its sides is easily warped. An un-triangulated box has very little strength. You can see this in action above. As the hand pushes against the corner of the box, the shape warps into a parallelogram. Diagram SF3. A box with a cross-member forms two triangles Shown in red and is said to be triangulated. The force applied to the box is trying to pull the cross-member apart.
In diagram SF3 above, the tube is being pulled in tension as if the corners of the box to where it is attached were trying to tear it apart. Triangulation can also work with tubes in compression. However the ideal design always has the member tubes working in tension which provides far superior strength to tubes working in compression. Diagram SF4 below shows how the load being applied is now attempting to crush or compress the tube instead of tearing it apart.
Because of the reduced strength in compression, buckling can become an issue. Diagram SF4. A triangulated box. The force applied to the box compresses the cross-member, potentially buckling it if the force is sufficient. Returning to diagram SF1, there are numerous examples in this diagram of how open box tube structures have been triangulated to create a much more rigid chassis. The diagram also shows suspension and other mounting brackets.
Spaceframes usually use square or round tubing. Square tube is easier to work with because cutting it involves straight cuts at a particular angle. Round tubing does not butt up against other round tubes well, and therefore requires a special tube notcher to cut round shapes into it. The key aspect of spaceframe design is to identify and analyze the loads that are to be expected, and design the frame and triangulation to handle those loads in an optimized fashion.
As tubing in tension provides higher strength than compression, a lighter gauge tubing may be used in tension loaded areas to save weight. In areas where tubing sees compression loads, a heavier gauge or larger diameter tubing may be better to use. The monocoque chassis is technically an improvement over the spaceframe chassis. Diagram MC1 below shows a simple example of the difference between spaceframe and monocoque design.Dj hit ben old school mix
Diagram MC1. Comparing the behavior of a monocoque versus a spaceframe under tension load. When the hand pushes against it in the direction shown by the green arrow, it creates a shear force across the panel.
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